世界著名咖啡庄园巡礼-巴拿马翡翠庄园(La Esmeralda Estate)

小窝说:咖啡产地分布在世界不同地方,主要有几大产区,分别是中美洲、南美洲、非洲、东南亚、中国云南等,不同产区的不同庄园,因海拔、土壤、气温、降水量等不同,咖啡的香气与口感也不同,如同红酒的分级制度,精品咖啡强调咖啡的“可追溯性与透明性”,能追溯到每一包咖啡豆产至哪个庄园,咖啡豆生长的海拔、降水量、土壤等情况,处理的方式等详细信息。小窝带你来一起走进各大庄园,看看每一颗咖啡豆的生长环境,探索咖啡豆风味形成的条件……

这次来到中美洲,中美洲(Central America )是指墨西哥以南、哥伦比亚以北的美洲大陆中部地区,东临加勒比海,西濒太平洋,也是连接南美洲和北美洲的狭长陆地。包括危地马拉、伯利兹、萨尔瓦多、洪都拉斯、尼加拉瓜、哥斯达黎加和巴拿马7个国家。

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波奎特(Bouquete)

大名鼎鼎的瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha)诞生地即在东麓的小山城波奎特(Bouquete)的翡翠庄园。
好山好水的波奎特(Bouquete),向来是欧美精英怡情养老的圣地,全镇两万人,外来高阶移民就有两千多人,此间的咖啡农场主人,英语、欧语说写流利,颇具世界观,而且拥有博士或硕士学历的比率,高居各咖啡产国之冠。

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早在1904年,巴拿马运河兴建之初,欧洲大批工程师和高级管理人员,受聘到东部酷热的巴拿马城工作。1917年,巴拿马运河竣工后,这批高级知识分子,尤其是北欧人,爱上巴拿马的波奎特(Bouquete),这里气候凉爽,四季如春,很多人留在这里,买了农场,养老于此,享受丹霞迷雾飘香的居住情境。

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遮荫下的咖啡树

可以说,百年前欧洲退休的工程师,是今日波奎特(Bouquete)畜牧与咖啡栽植业的先驱,这里先进的水洗处理厂和农牧硬件设施,均是当年工程师的杰作。

翡翠庄园(La Esmeralda Estate)(Bouquete)

翡翠庄园所在地位于Baru火山一角,所以该地区生产的咖啡豆在未出名时多以Baru山为命名,波奎特(Bouquete)周边地区风景优美,建有颇多休闲饭店,villa,度假庄园,甚至沿着重要河流Rio Caldera兴建,翡翠庄园(La Esmeralda)就在本河流右边的Jaramillo,之后更往河左边的Canas Verdes更高海拔区栽种咖啡,这都要感谢Rudolph Peterson当年决定购买这个产业。

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Peterson家族

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第一代庄园主Rudolph A. Peterson
1964年瑞典裔美国金融家鲁道夫.彼得森(Rudolph A.Peterson)退休,移居巴拿马,并买下波奎特(Bouquete)的翡翠庄园以乳业为主。曾担任过美国银行总裁,在当时的金融圈是一号大人物,Rudolph买下Hacienda La Esmeralda仅为了度假与后来退休使用,应该没预料到,这个庄园会变得举世闻名,甚至变成巴拿马精品咖啡庄园的代表。1973年,他的儿子普莱斯.彼得森在美国取得神经化学博士学位,却回到波奎特(Bouquete)协助父亲经营农场。Price接手后按海拔与微型气候,并按杯测表现以及栽种品种,将市场区隔为三大品牌来销售(Esmeralda Special,Diamond Mountain grows,Palmyra ),2012年起新增瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha),成为了四大品牌。

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盛开的咖啡花

一、翡翠特选(Esmeralda Special),即翡翠庄园自己举办的独立竞标,完全以瑰瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha),按生产区块的名称,每个区块再细分小批次来竞标,只有庄园拿出来独立竞标的瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha)批次,才可以用翡翠特选名称,2013年起,翡翠特选有九个批次。

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二、瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha),即瑰夏种,但不是独立竞赛的批次,由各生产区块种不参加竞标但品质仍优异者混合成这个品牌,依然是瑰夏品种,2012年开始启用这个品牌策略。

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三、钻石山(Diamond Mountain grows),翡翠的传统品种,且栽种Canas Verdes与Jaramillo两区,约海拔1400~1700米处,咖啡的口感复杂、巧克力、香料甜感明显、栽种咖啡品种是标准中美洲混合式,包括铁皮卡(Tipica)、波旁(Bourbon)、卡杜艾(Catuai)等三个品种。钻石山是环境友善(Eoo-friendly)、雨林联盟认证(Rainforest Alliance Certified)的咖啡。

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四、帕米拉(Palmyra)这个品牌的咖啡在靠近Baru火山公园区 ,属于翡翠庄园的商业豆,海拔1100~1200,米,栽种的全是卡杜艾 Catuai种,只有这里属于种地海拔,虽非精品级,但是典型的巴拿马Bouqete咖啡风味.酸不会太刺激,坚果甜与香草巧克力风味,Palmyra其实是La Esmeralda产量最高的咖啡,约占整个家族咖啡70%产量。

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瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha)的发现故事

1980年,普莱斯引进卡杜拉(Caturra)和卡杜艾(Catuai)品种,1994年设立水洗处理厂。1996年普莱斯听说邻近的哈拉蜜幽有座庄园的咖啡不错,带有浓浓的柑橘味,于是买下哈拉蜜幽咖啡园,并入翡翠庄园,彼得森家族初期是把两座庄园的咖啡混合后贩卖,但总觉得有一股若隐若现的橘香蜜味与华韵,此味谱迥异于中美洲咖啡的梅果味。
2002年某天,普拉斯的儿子丹尼尔,福至心灵,认为此味谱应该来自某一栽植区的单一品种,于是逐一杯测庄园内不同海拔栽种区的所有品种。

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杯测结果出炉,万人迷的花香蜜味与柑橘韵,居然出自哈拉蜜幽边陲的防风林。这一带的海拔最高,约1500~2000米,咖啡树瘦高叶稀,其貌不扬,各分支的垂直间距比一般咖啡树来得大,而且各树枝开花结果的每个芽结距离,长达7.26厘米。这表示同一树枝单元,可供开花结果的“生财区”不够密集,属于低产品种,经济价值低,可能因此才被前任庄主贬到最偏僻,风势最强势的地区,充当防风林,为其他结间较短且紧密的高产品种遮挡强风。

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普莱斯和丹尼尔还发现,这些长相怪异的低产咖啡树,亦星散在哈拉蜜幽1400米以下,较低海拔处,但味谱却差很多,不但橘香蜜味不见了,苦味也更强了。

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两人的结论是:防风林里不知名的咖啡树,拥有独特基因,必须在1500米以上高海拔区,接受冷月寒风与山气的淬炼,方能孕育惊世味谱。

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水洗池

一般咖啡树种在哈拉蜜幽防风林都无法存活,因为风势太猛,气温太低,但这些瘦高的咖啡树却怡然自得,咖啡果子也比一般品种肥硕,而且不易被吹落,虽然产国量稀少,但橘香蜜味迷死人,这究竟是什么品种?

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日晒场

多方请教后得知,此品种叫瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha),1963年由意大利裔,任职农业部的唐.巴契引进,但由于都种植在1200米的海拔区,产量低,豆粒瘦小且风味不佳,而被弃种。

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大型处理设备

2004年,知识分子的生豆采购专家杰夫,担任BOP评审。他回忆:共有二十五支豆子巴拿马精品豆子进入决赛,但其中有一支令评审颇为困惑,她散发的柑橘味、莱姆酸香、甘蔗甜、茉莉香……弥漫屋内,啜吸入口,犹如百花盛开,嘴里放烟火般绚丽。而埃塞俄比亚的耶加雪菲也不可能有这么浓郁的橘香蜜味,冠军豆已定。庄主普莱斯向大家解释,这只豆是瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha)品种,瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha)从此名声大噪。

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日晒处理

同为瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha),形态不同,味谱各殊,巴拿马瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha),豆貌尖长肥硕,饶富橘香蜜味;埃塞俄比亚的“75227号品种”亦称瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha),但豆相尖长瘦小,风味普通;至于哥斯达黎加、肯尼亚与马拉维的瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha),豆貌短圆,味谱犹如稀释版的巴拿马瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha)。

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即使产自巴拿马翡翠庄园的瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha),品质也不尽相同,会因栽种区的海拔与采收期不同,而有大小差异。基本上,海拔越高的小产区,身价越贵,近年来,屡创新高的艺妓瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha)出自哈拉蜜幽。海拔在1500~1650米的马利欧瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha),采取期在2月,卡尼亚维蝶产的蒙塔尼亚瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha),海拔在1700~1800米,在拍卖会上,每磅的成交价在50多美元。而海拔在1500米以下的产区,身价较低,每磅十几美元就能买到,橘香蜜味淡薄许多,杂苦味若隐若现。
巴拿马翡翠庄园的瑰夏(艺妓/Geisha)最多占翡翠庄园咖啡总产量的4%~5%。

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翡翠庄园获奖记录—史无前例的拍卖记录

翡翠庄园的得奖记录与次数是史无前例的,截止2013年一共拿下15次不同咖啡竞赛的冠军,竞标金额中有四次是当时的世界记录,尤其以2013年获得最佳巴拿马日晒组冠军的日晒瑰夏批次,每磅以350.25美元标出更为惊人!

2007年翡翠在最佳巴拿马年度竞标时,一磅以130美元拍出,震撼各国,造成媒体竞相采访。别的国家竞赛,如卓越杯,也有得奖豆拍出高价的记录,但长期观察国际竞标即可发现,翡翠庄园每次创下的记录,都是该年度咖啡竞标中的最高价!除此之外,任何国家的竞标价皆未能超越翡翠的高价记录。

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翡翠庄园得奖记录:

1st Place Specialty Coffee Association of America Roasters Guild Cupping Pavilion (2007, 2006, 2005)

2nd Place Coffee of The Year (2009、2008)

1st Place “Best of Panama” (2013、2010、2009、2007, 2006, 2005, 2004)

1st Place Rainforest Alliance Cupping for Quality (2009、2008, 2007, 2006, 2004)

 

 

庄园名称:艾利达庄园/艾丽达 (Elida Estate Coffee)
所在国家:巴拿马(Panama)
庄园位置:厄图给而,波奎特(Alto Quiel,Bouquete)
年产量:约400袋(60公斤/袋)
庄园面积:65公顷(30公顷种植咖啡,35公顷保留原始森林)
咖啡树龄:老种区40年,其余平均5年
海拔:1700~2000米
主要品种:卡杜艾Catuai85%,铁皮卡Typica与波旁Bourbon15%,瑰夏Geisha少量
开花期:3、4、5月
采摘期:1~4月
土质:火山土壤(Volcanic clay)
年均降水量:2400毫米
处理法:日晒(Natural)
干香:深色莓果、甜香、庄园级巧克力、花香、油脂香。
湿香:蜜香甜、莓果香、黑醋栗、红色覆盆子、各种丰富的酸甜香。
口感:入口黑色莓果风味明显、很干净饱满、油脂感好、酸甜感融合佳、黑醋栗、高海拔番茄风味、蔓越莓、油脂感很持久。

4,206 thoughts on “世界著名咖啡庄园巡礼-巴拿马翡翠庄园(La Esmeralda Estate)

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