SCAA金杯理论之黄金水粉比

SCAA美国精品咖啡协会与scae欧洲精品咖啡协会所定义的Gold Cup精杯咖啡比例,必须将咖啡的萃取率抓在20%左右,而TDS(浓度比)大约在1.1%~1.3%间。

针对Drip Filter滴滤冲煮,如何萃取出最佳咖啡风味,控制因素不外乎咖啡粉的萃取物与一杯咖啡中的浓度这两个变量,而这两个变量早在1960年即有所谓”Coffee Gold Cup”金杯咖啡理依据SCAE(欧洲咖啡精品协会)定义Gold Cup Standard:”1000ml水,50~60g咖啡粉,92°C ~96°C 热水冲煮出咖咖啡”。这个咖啡冲煮落在最佳萃取率(Extraction)与浓度(Strength Concentration)的”靶心”位置,即是”Gold Cup”。

首先每颗咖啡可萃取溶出物,最大约为30%(也就是有70%木质部等无法萃取),即10g咖啡粉最多有3g咖啡溶出萃取物,而一杯美味咖啡,咖啡最佳萃取率即30%咖啡最大可溶出物的60~70%为最适萃取,那小于60%(18%以下萃取率)即萃取不足,咖啡风味将呈现风味不完整,而大于70%(22%以上萃取率)则过度萃取,咖啡将呈现冤苦辛辣不好味道。

因此咖啡最佳萃取率为18%~22%。

这18~22%=30%*(60~70%),也就是咖啡最大可萃取率30%,萃取6~7成才是最佳咖啡风味,为什么不直接写18~22%,而绕30%中之60~70%,是当我们在冲煮一杯咖啡时,能想象如何从咖啡最大萃取物中,我们们如何萃取那6,7成的最佳风味。也就是说10g咖啡粉冲泡咖啡最大可萃取30%(3g)咖啡可溶出物,但我们期望最佳的萃取物18%~22%(1.8~2.2g)。

另外这些萃取物将溶于多少热水中,这就是咖啡浓度,最适咖啡浓度落于1.0~1.5%间,小于1.0%轻淡无味,不如喝开水就好,如果太浓厚的咖啡浓度1.5%以上(滴滤咖啡而言),则不好的口感。滴滤咖啡最佳Gold Cup浓度为1.2%~1.45%。太清淡或太浓厚咖啡浓度均是不好的口感。美式风味:就是浓度比较淡的咖啡,所以一杯美式咖啡他的浓度TDS约落在1.2~1.3%。欧洲风味:一般欧洲咖啡浓度比较浓厚一点,所以一杯欧式咖啡他的浓度TDS约落在1.3~1.45%。

所以SCAE(欧洲精品咖啡协会)定义标准Gold Cup靶心位置,与萃取率与浓度关系,即咖啡粉的量有一个相互关系如下:

3

从对照表中决定预定咖啡冲煮量及设定咖啡粉量上下限,如何从0~30%萃取率到达18~22%最佳萃取率,同时咖啡冲泡浓度刚好位于1.2%~1.45%,就如如何投出一颗好球。这冲泡一杯Gold Cup咖啡,上述基本粉量与冲泡量决定后,能否达到最佳18%~22%最佳萃取率,同时浓度又落在1.2%~1.45%,涉及到萃取率问题,与咖啡研磨粗细,水温,过滤介质(影响水停留时间)…等相互变因

2

依SCAE冲煮一杯好咖啡控制因素包含下列五大项;不管用什么方法冲煮咖啡,这五大准则都是必需掌握的。

  • 萃取时间掌握Contact time:应用各种冲煮方法,要在其较佳萃取时间内萃取出18~22%萃取率,重要在控制咖啡研磨度及水温。
  • 水温掌握Temperature of the water:92°C~96°C开始冲煮水温是必需要掌握的,过高或过低初始水温都可能是不适当。
  • 冲煮过程中扰动咖啡粉Turbulence:扰动是为了能冲煮出应有萃取率,如塞风搅拌,手冲水柱冲水强度等都是为达到萃取所必须扰动。
  • 预浸滋润咖啡粉Wettability:手冲,espresso,美式在冲煮前都有的湿润阶段,这阶段湿润水量为每公克咖啡粉,2ml水量预浸,浸润时间约30sec。当然咖啡豆烘焙状态又有不同预浸溼润状态,这部份手冲就可以好好控制了。
  • 均匀冲煮Uniform Dispersion:冲煮过程让水均匀经过每一颗咖啡粉末,同时从初始到结束一致水温,水量萃取是重要的,比如espresso强调冲煮水温压力一致,手冲稳定的水柱就是这个道理。1

    咖啡冲煮方法
    French press法国压
    Percolator摩卡壶
    Drip Filter滴滤(手冲即为滴滤冲煮的其中一种)
    Syphon塞风虹吸
    Pressurised Infusion(Espresso)意式浓缩

    至于咖啡粉的研磨粗细:
    法国压:每颗咖啡研磨成100~300颗咖啡粉末,约直径0.7mm粉末,即约二号特砂糖颗粒大小。
    滤泡滴滤:每颗咖啡研磨成500~800颗咖啡粉末,约直径0.5mm粉末,即约咖啡伴糖颗粒大小。
    塞风:每颗咖啡研磨成1000~3000颗咖啡粉末,约直径0.35mm粉末,即约食品精盐颗粒大小。
    Espresson:每颗咖啡研磨成3500颗咖啡粉末,约直径0.05mm粉末,即约面粉颗粒再粗一点大小。

    SCAA标准杯测时咖啡粉研磨,70~75%通过标准筛#20(0.85mm)的均匀度,约比法国压粗一点。
    另SCAE提供咖啡冲煮过程、不同研磨粗细冲煮时间的观念:
    1.浸润阶段Wetting:这时候将热水放入咖啡粉湿润咖啡,让咖啡萃取物溶解,浸润水量约为咖啡粉量两倍,浸润时间约30sce。
    2.冲煮阶段Water Cycle:这时因上述咖啡粉末粗细各有不同时间让水与咖啡粉接触,并溶出咖啡萃取物。

    • a.法国压:粉末粗,约浸润3~5min
    • b.滴滤泡式:冲煮过程约1~3min
    • c.Syphon:冲煮过程约40~60sec
    • d.espresso:三十秒萃取30cc浓缩咖啡

    3.萃取后段:这时咖啡已萃取50%以上可萃取物,即将60~70%咖啡可溶出物萃取出来为最适萃取及调整水量达到最适咖啡浓度落于1.0~1.5%间。
    4.萃取后咖啡渣:咖啡渣内含水量约为原咖啡粉的2倍量(手冲滤泡式)。

    一些咖啡磅的重量参考
    1.咖啡豆:约6~7颗为1g
    2.Hario Syphon量匙:一平匙8~9g
    3.Hario V60量匙:一平匙14~15g
    4.咖啡豆(烘焙后):0.38~0.43 g/cm^3
    5.咖啡粉:0.44~0.48 g/cm^3
    6.一颗18/64″咖啡豆烘焙后长轴12mm,短轴8mm,高5mm半椭球体,有此一说咖啡萃取与表面积有关,上述一颗咖啡表面积1.4cm^2。

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