世界著名咖啡庄园巡礼-尼加拉瓜柠檬树庄园(EI Limoncillo)

小窝说:咖啡产地分布在世界不同地方,主要有几大产区,分别是中美洲、南美洲、非洲、东南亚、中国云南等,不同产区的不同庄园,因海拔、土壤、气温、降水量等不同,咖啡的香气与口感也不同,如同红酒的分级制度,精品咖啡强调咖啡的“可追溯性与透明性”,能追溯到每一包咖啡豆产至哪个庄园,咖啡豆生长的海拔、降水量、土壤等情况,处理的方式等详细信息。小窝带你来一起走进各大庄园,看看每一颗咖啡豆的生长环境,探索咖啡豆风味形成的条件……

这次来到中美洲,中美洲(Central America )是指墨西哥以南、哥伦比亚以北的美洲大陆中部地区,东临加勒比海,西濒太平洋,也是连接南美洲和北美洲的狭长陆地。包括危地马拉、伯利兹、萨尔瓦多、洪都拉斯、尼加拉瓜、哥斯达黎加和巴拿马7个国家。

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尼加拉瓜位于中美洲地区中部,北界洪都拉斯,南连哥斯达黎加,东临加勒比海,西濒太平洋,总面积为13.04万平方公里。

limoncillo-13-1 尼加拉瓜北中部为高地;东部为海岸平原,多丛林沼泽,地势低平;西部为沿岸低地,其东多火山、湖泊。
尼加拉瓜平原高温多雨,属热带海洋性气候;西部沿岸低地,降水明显少于东部,且有干、湿季之分,属热带草原气候;中部高地年平均气温18℃,年降水量1500-2500毫米,5-12月为雨季。

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尼加拉瓜是咖啡主要出产国之一,生产深具质量的咖啡。中美洲几个咖啡生产国,危地马拉,哥斯达黎加,尼加拉瓜所出产的咖啡质量皆相近,主要原因为天候状况,土壤肥沃度,种植高度等条件都相差无异。

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尼国咖啡种植生产具有得天独厚的环境,遍布的肥沃火山灰土壤,加上遮阴的种植方式,建立了良好的生产质量,尼国咖啡具有丰富的醇度及清香的味道,适度的酸度及回甘苦味的平衡感极佳,在国际咖啡行家的眼中视为上品。

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质量上乘的尼加拉瓜咖啡在世界咖啡豆中位居前列,享有美誉。它颗粒大小适中,口味温和,十分芳香浓醇。

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咖啡是尼加拉瓜的支柱产业,每年生产近十几万吨咖啡豆。很多品尝过尼加拉瓜咖啡的人,通常会认为它和萨尔瓦多咖啡、洪都拉斯咖啡没什么区别。它香气浓郁,柔滑细致,余味微苦,好象葡萄酒中隐约蕴涵的味道。

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最好的咖啡产于马塔加尔帕(Matagalpa)产区,这里出产的咖啡备受世界咖啡爱好者的推崇,逐渐受到了精品界的重视。丰沛的降水、适宜的温度、高海拔、肥沃的土壤,得天独厚的种植生态,是造就尼加拉瓜高品质咖啡的前提。

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尼加拉瓜是一个经济落后的农业国,是中美洲最贫穷的国家之一,失业率很高,人民生活贫困,而咖啡是尼加拉瓜的支柱产业,每年生产近十几万吨咖啡豆。由于经济基础差,咖啡业仍然比较落后,而咖啡农们也处于较贫穷的状态。尼加拉瓜虽是中美洲的拥有大面积国土的国家,却不是咖啡世界中的大产国,与它的邻居哥斯达黎加相比,产量与名气都弱了不少。但质量上乘的尼加拉瓜咖啡在世界咖啡豆中位居前列,享有美誉。 传统的尼加拉瓜咖啡农多习惯使用水洗处理法对咖啡果实进行后续的加工。咖啡农们更习惯使用水洗处理法,来保证咖啡生豆的风味更稳定和干净,直到约2009年后,咖啡农的传统观念才有所改观,开始更多地区尝试全日晒和蜜处理等加工方式。

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柠檬树(El Limoncillo)庄园位于马塔加尔帕海拔950~1300米之间的高原地区,栽种的咖啡树周边多有高耸的针叶林,为咖啡树的生长提供遮荫。这让咖啡树既能获得阳光的照射,又能避免植株被烈日灼伤。

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现任庄园主是厄文.米瑞许(Erwin Mierisch),柠檬树(El Limoncillo)庄园为保证咖啡的品质,在咖啡果实的采摘环节会使用人工采摘的方法,将完全成熟的果实逐个摘下,采摘通常需要三次才能完成。手摘法虽然人工成本高,且采摘效率低下,但这可以极大限度地保护植株,不让果树在采摘的过程中受到伤害,同时成熟的果实会拥有更好的甜度。提到柠檬树(El Limoncillo)庄园,就不得不提著名一支豆子尼加爪哇(Java Nica),这支豆子在08年的尼加拉瓜卓越杯COE全国大赛上夺得了第二名的好成绩。这款豆子外观漂亮,水洗处理后的风味细腻丰富,具有水果和香草、奶油的香气,从此一战成名获得了更多的瞩目。

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柠檬树庄园也会对咖啡进行蜜处理的加工方式。在咖啡果实在采摘后,将脱掉外果皮的咖啡放到非洲棚上晾晒。相比传统的将咖啡直接放置于地面晾晒的方式,使用非洲棚干燥咖啡,更多地减少了晾晒过程中的污染,避免产生更多的杂味,最终使得咖啡品质得到了提升。蜜处理后的咖啡豆,具备了更多迷人的热带水果风味。呈现在我们面前的拥有精致风味的咖啡豆,无论是从采摘、种植、加工方式等环节,或是后期的包装运输环节,都倾注了生产者的良苦用心,在将咖啡制作为杯中物的过程中,我们也应当用心对待才是。

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Java Nica 品种重现传奇

爪哇种一度频危,最终在尼加拉瓜复耕成功,她源自爪哇长种(Java-Long Berry),来自印尼爪哇岛,,此种在爪哇岛仍可发现,产量不多,因抗病性差,当地农场已经逐步改种其他品种。爪哇种外形类似铁皮卡,一般看到的多属短颗状(shortberry)长种较少。品种外形稀少,而风味却很干净、细腻。2008年尼加爪哇勇夺尼加拉瓜全国卓越杯亚军,尼加爪哇满足了多方需求:量稀少、风味好、故事性十足!

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2001年某天,厄文与父亲驱车去拜访纪委庄园主,请教农务与处理法,回程经过联合咖啡组织(Unicafa.尼国的咖啡生产者组织)的试验站时,有人试图拦车,厄文说他想直接扬长而去,单父亲之一要停下来看看是否需要帮忙。原来此人在试验站工作,试验站因经费短缺被迫关闭,试验站没有现金可发遣散费,只给他一袋种子与几把破烂的铲子,迫于无奈,只得拦下来,询问到:你们可否帮帮我,买下实验室给我的种子与工具?厄文的父亲毫不犹豫,很慷慨的同意了。

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厄文说,他对父亲的善举并不以为然,那袋种子外面需标识爪哇(Java)字样,也没引起他太大的好奇心,因爪哇种对多数尼加拉瓜的咖啡农来说很陌生,厄文并不觉得需要花心思在不知名的品种上。

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回到自家庄园后,厄文父亲仔细端详这些种子,便播种育苗,幼苗长出来后,某天,父子俩带着幼株去请教80年代实验站的学者,她仔细看后,确认厄文父子无意中获得的确实是爪哇种,她异常兴奋的说:爪哇是很伟大的品种,值得好好栽种!要注意的是,收获量不高,抗病性也不加,需要悉心照顾!这是爪哇首度在尼加拉瓜被实际播种成功且验明正身的经过。

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2007年厄文拿尼加爪哇种参加隔年的卓越杯大赛,第一次参赛就拿下尼加拉瓜卓越杯全国大赛的亚军,竞标额甚至超越了当年的冠军,尼加爪哇一战成名,掀起咖啡界的巨大话题。

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庄园名称:柠檬树庄园
(EI Limoncillo Estate)
所在国家:尼加拉瓜(Nicaragua)
庄园位置:马塔加尔帕(Matagalpa)
城镇: 远立雅,位于北雅西卡.都马拉
(Yassica Norte Tumala de Dalia)
庄园成立时间:1932年
庄园主:玛利亚.米瑞许(Maria Ligia Mierisch)
海拔:950~1300米
主要品种:10%马拉葛西皮Maragogipe、30%帕卡马拉Pacamara、25%波旁Bourbon、20%卡杜艾Catuai、15%尼加爪哇Java Nica
品种名称:尼加爪哇种(Java Nica)
处理法:95%全水洗、5%日晒法,本批次属100%水洗法
后段干燥:棚架日晒(Sun Dried-Patios)
开花期:1至2月,3月中,5至6月
采收期:12月到3月
采手法:手摘法,逐颗摘采成熟樱桃果,通常分三次采收。
烘焙时间:一爆中段起锅,烘焙时间11分钟。
干香:香草、巧克力、香料甜、甜柠檬、糖香、蓝莓、奶油、柑橘。
湿香:香草、奶油、水梨、特别的茶香
口感:香草、茶感、带甜的葡萄柚、油脂感佳,在口腔的包覆感明显;甜薄荷巧克力,茶树精油的香气、巧克力、黑糖、带核水果(桃子、李子)、奶油感、余韵甜感持久。
品种名:帕卡马拉种(Pacamara)
处理法:蜜处理(Natural Miel)
烘焙时间:一爆中段起锅,烘焙时间12分钟
干香:巧克力、热带水果甜、焦糖、烤臻果、香料甜。
湿香:欧亚甘草香、茴香、油脂香。
口感:油脂感,热带水果感丰富,肉桂糖,香草植物,欧亚甘草糖,甜感良好,属于多变的香料与热带水果甜,红茶香,红茶甜感,低温时热带风味迷人。

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