咖啡进入中国的时间是什么时候?

咖啡是外来产物,中国以前并不生产咖啡,作为外来物,咖啡在中国的发展已经走过了风风雨雨一百多年。为了方便大家了解它的发展过程,我们通过咖啡种植,咖啡消费,咖啡馆发展以及咖啡概念的变化这几部分,做了一个简单的梳理。

— 咖啡馆发展

18世纪末,法国承建昆明至河内的铁路,巴黎的一位工程师从西堤岛带来最简单的研磨机、饮具以及100公斤咖啡豆,在昆明开设了中国第一家咖啡馆,此馆比中国近代最早的”上海30年代”咖啡馆早了将近100年。那时候,尽管大多数中国人还不认识咖啡,更不知道西堤岛,但是西堤岛咖啡这一古老的欧洲品牌,早在100多年前,即与中国结下了不解之缘。

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20世纪30年代,上海最早的咖啡馆开在外滩,供那些外国水手们过过咖啡瘾,或许也有解解乡愁的意味。那时的咖啡,被上海人称为“咳嗽药水”。其中比较有名的咖啡馆有:Hot Chocolate(沙利文)、DDS(甜甜丝)、Rosemary、 Mars(东海)、Jimmy(吉美)、Philadelphia(飞达)、老大昌(现在有多家糕点店)、凯司令(现在有多家糕点店)、康生等等。当然,这只是上海咖啡馆的一个片断,那个时期的上海,还有许多从海外归来的华侨,他们在生活中,保持着喝咖啡的习惯——不仅仅是去咖啡馆,更多的时候他们在自家的餐厅或客厅里,品尝香浓的咖啡。

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咖啡馆真正进入中国人生活的开始,还要从1999年星巴克进入中国市场算起。1999年1月在北京中国国际贸易中心开设了中国大陆第一家门店。除售卖咖啡外,星巴克一直不遗余力地向中国人传达“咖啡文化”,并培养中国年轻人喝咖啡的习惯。而现在,星巴克已经在中国100多个城市开设了超过2100家门店。对星巴克来说,中国市场目前已发展成为仅次于美国的星巴克第二大市场。

中国的咖啡市场正在以每年30%以上的速度扩大,中国咖啡和咖啡馆市场未来发展空间无限大,这一点上,从各国外咖啡连锁品牌争相进入中国就可见端倪。

 

— 咖啡概念变化

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对于中国人而言,在很长一段时间里,“咖啡”和“速溶咖啡”是两个可以互换的名词。直到诸如美国的“星巴克”和香港的茶餐厅进入,人们开始意识到原来咖啡不是速溶咖啡,而是一种时尚、是“星巴克”内的抽象画、爵士乐和具有侵略性的咖啡香;是茶餐厅内诸如“鸳鸯”这种一半茶一半咖啡混合出来的、口味上中西合璧的饮料,盛在精致的白瓷碟里被侍者端起来配菜。而前者,因为更具有异国风情和时尚情调,而继“速溶咖啡”之后,成为咖啡的又一代名词。“咖啡与茶”的招牌大多出现于台湾人或者新加坡人开的咖啡馆,究其本意,是另外一种“中西合璧”的称谓:喝的是咖啡,充满了一种随意的“茶的态度”;进的是咖啡馆,气氛和感觉却仍旧是老茶馆式的社交表演。

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而经过这些咖啡文化的熏陶,现在的咖啡馆大多数成为人们商务交流,朋友聚会,学习工作的一个区域,咖啡馆的形象也趋向大众化、平民化,当然其中不乏一些主题咖啡馆的设计,吸引着相对应的人群。像是各种复古主题的咖啡厅,或收集儿时的各种玩具,让前来的人一下子变成小朋友挨个把玩个不停,或是保留了过去时间老上海的精致,让人们缅怀那个时间的文化气息。前一段时间还看到网易的跨界主题咖啡厅 “易间” ,主打最新的咖啡潮流以及体验到网易游戏出品的多种多样的游戏,让众多玩伴一起讨论游戏心得。喜欢咖啡的人,应该都有一间自己的咖啡馆最爱吧~ 还会有一个最爱咖啡厅清单?(笑~) 但是,往往还是星巴克里 “人满为患” 。人们对于 “喝的是什么” 也慢慢开始有了讲究,去引进学习咖啡的书籍,关注国际上有什么好豆,在淘宝上也可以轻松买到各种咖啡器具,越来越多的咖啡爱好者丰富着这个庞大的市场。甚至在一些大城市,“网红咖啡厅”的门口,总是排着长长的队伍,只为求一杯好喝的咖啡~

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