正在崛起的中国咖啡市场

2005年,Richard Chien 在中国东北部地区开办了一家每天能卖出900杯咖啡、每杯咖啡只卖6元的咖啡馆。10年之后的今天,Richard 在北京拥有了一家自己的咖啡学校,学生们络绎不绝,纷纷到此学习如何冲泡和品鉴咖啡的醇香。

咖啡市场正在中国慢慢崛起,虽然目前中国的年咖啡消费总量仅占世界的2%,但中国咖啡市场的转型之快令人叹为观止。

F1HG6M Young woman drinking coffee in cafe, using smartphone, Shanghai, China

Richard 称,中国的经济,“经历了天翻地覆的变化,人们开始追求不一样的生活方式。”他说道,“茶不再是唯一的饮料。”

据美国农业部统计数据显示,中国的年咖啡消费总量在过去4年时间里翻了三番,增速居世界首位。同时我们不要忘记,中国拥有着全世界最大的潜在咖啡市场,中国的总人口高达14亿。

 

近日,星巴克对外宣布,公司将在上海开办首个海外烘焙体验店,在星巴克眼中,中国无疑是公司最重要的海外市场,星巴克在中国已拥有超过2000家分店,公司还计划在未来5年每年新开500家连锁店。星巴克在北美的主要竞争对手 Dunkin’ Donuts 去年也宣布将在未来20年在中国新开1400家分店,将现有分店数量翻100倍。

咖啡市场的崛起无疑映证了中国向消费型经济的转型,日益壮大的中产经济正在成为国家经济的主要支柱。越来越多的中国人选择到海外旅游,去日本喝意式浓缩咖啡,或在美国的咖啡厅里完成他们的毕业论文,与父辈不同,咖啡早已融入到中国年轻人的日常生活当中。

“中国人如今享有自由的经济支配权。”北京大学投资学专业教授 Jeffery Towson 在《The One Hour China Consumer Book: Five SHort Stories That Explain the Brutal Fight for Billion Consumers》一书中这样写道。对于中国人来讲,咖啡虽是一种舶来品,但同时它也是一件谁都买得起的“轻奢品”。

 

CHINA - MARCH 20:  Woman feeds baby outside Starbucks in the Yu Garden Bazaar, China has a one child policy to reduce population  (Photo by Tim Graham/Getty Images)

虽然目前中国经济正在经历困难时期,但消费市场对咖啡的需求仍保持强劲的增长势头,中国庞大的人口基数为咖啡市场的未来发展带来了不可估量的广阔空间。

据 Euromonitor International 统计,中国大陆居民每年的咖啡饮用量仅为3杯,这一数字在世界排名垫底;相比之下,美国消费者每年的咖啡饮用量为363杯,英国人则为250杯。

一家位于上海的市场调研公司负责人 Shaun Rein 表示,中国对咖啡日益膨胀的市场需求“将改变全球咖啡供应链的格局”,种植者需要进一步提高产量,并根据中国消费者的口味偏好改善种植技术。“历史上发生过同样的事情,全球咖啡需求量远远超过供应量,导致咖啡市场价格一路飙升,直到产量增加才得以回落。”他说道。

Shuan 预计,中国未来年咖啡需求量增速在20%左右,其中30岁以下的年轻女性将是咖啡消费市场的主力军。“现在的年轻女性不会再一味追求奢侈品。”他说道,“她们追求的是异域文化和生活格调,咖啡可以满足这一切。”

 

今年24岁的年轻设计师小张便是新一代年轻女性消费者中的代表者,她刚刚从上海的一所大学毕业,如今她每天都要去咖啡厅喝咖啡。“咖啡师们非常友好,我喜欢在咖啡厅学习,与陌生人邂逅。”她说道。小张告诉我们,她是在去年学校组织的一次澳洲交流学习之旅中爱上咖啡的。

“但在中国你很难找到高品质的咖啡厅。”她说。

BEIJING, CHINA - SEPTEMBER 28:  Fashion model Wang Yili has coffee and a roll at local Starbucks on September 28, 2005 in Beijing, China. Foreign companies and cultures have made huge inroads in terms of popularity in China, especially among young people.  (Photo by Joe McNally/Getty Images)

从中,星巴克看到了市场机遇。

“如果有一天星巴克在中国的分店总数超过了美国,我完全不会感到惊讶。”星巴克 CEO Howard Schultz 在今年五月的星巴克全球峰会上说道。星巴克如今在上海拥有约1000家分店,其在单个城市的分店数量突破新高。

咖啡、Wifi、空调,与三两好友闲聊,与商务伙伴碰面——正是这种消费气氛吸引着越来越多的中国消费者走进咖啡厅。在中国,雀巢速溶咖啡仍占据着庞大的市场份额,现如今仍有许多中国消费者会到附近的超市购买每包仅几块钱的速溶咖啡;中国大部分城市的咖啡馆上午9点之后才开始营业……即便是这样,越来越多的中国消费者开始接受咖啡馆,爱上了“洋气”的咖啡馆文化。

在北京的一处咖啡厅,一台红色的烘焙炉赫然摆放在橱窗里,引得不少路人驻足观看。这里的咖啡更适合中国人的口味:苦味更淡,咖啡因更少。

 

但这里的咖啡并不便宜,一杯新鲜烘焙、研磨、冲泡的咖啡能卖到60块钱,而就在旁边的餐馆,那里的包子只买2块钱,牛肉面只卖18块钱。这家咖啡厅的主人小姜是在俄罗斯工作期间爱上咖啡的,去年他家咖啡厅里卖出的咖啡总数和果汁与饮料相当;而今年,咖啡的销量是其他饮料的量杯,小姜同时会给附近的公司送外卖,每杯要多收3块钱。 年近40的小姜说道:“我们想做出中国人喜欢的、更健康的咖啡。”

口味和价格是中国咖啡市场发展所面临的最大阻碍,尤其是对于非城市地区来讲。

“随便挑一家中国一线城市的高档咖啡厅,去和美国加州或波士顿的普通咖啡馆比一比,咖啡日销量之间的差距非常明显。”位于美国加州的咖啡生豆贸易公司 Royal Coffee 负责人 Peter Radosevich 表示,“咖啡在中国的发展的确存在阻力。”

为了实现咖啡工业在中国的全面发展,尤其是对于精品咖啡来讲,业内人士必须深度开发除一、二线城市以外地区市场,让人们接受“原来除了喝茶,喝咖啡也是不错的选择”的理念, 这也正是文章开头 Richard 创办咖啡学校的真正原因。

来此学习的学生小蒋正坐在教室里仔细聆听讲师讲述咖啡冲泡的奥秘,作为前中央电视台记者,小蒋想要学习咖啡制作技术,并将它带回到自己的故乡兰州。“在老家,很少有人知道咖啡是什么。”现年38岁的小蒋说道,“我有义务将咖啡传播给更多的人。”

 

英文原文地址:

http://www.bbc.com/capital/story/20160628-yuan-more-coffee-chinas-lucrative-caffeine-craze

 

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